Governing For Revolution:

Social Transformation in Civil War

Although prevailing views suggest rebels govern to enhance their organizational capacity, this book demonstrates that some rebels undertake burdensome governance that can imperil their cadres during war. The origins for this choice rest with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) during the Chinese Civil War. Unlike most previous rebel groups, the CCP knowingly introduced challenging governance projects. Despite civilian resistance and challenges to these projects, the CCP nevertheless propagated its governance strategy globally, creating a strategic model cognitively available to almost all active and future rebel leaders. What determines if rebel leaders imitate this model--including its governance--is the transformative nature of the organization’s long-term goals. Only rebel groups whose leaders share the CCP’s similarly transformative, revolutionary ambitions decide to imitate the CCP’s model, including governance. Over time, select international actors' expectations converged upon the CCP's behavioral template as the appropriate course of action for rebels with more transformative goals. As a result of this convergence, rebel groups increasingly could reap materially and ideationally rewarded revolutionary rebel groups’ conformity to the CCP’s model, further reinforcing rebels' mimetic choices. Reduced compatibilities between the transformativity of rebel groups’ goals and the CCP’s objectives reduces the extent to which these leaders decide to imitate the CCP’s behavior. Using archival data from six countries, primary rebel sources, fieldwork and quantitative analysis, Governing for Revolution underscores the mimicry of and ultimate convergence in revolutionary rebels’ governance, despite vast differences in ideology, that persists even today. 

EPLF Program, 1977